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    MUSE will contribute to the understanding of a number of areas which are the subject of much current research through the observations of marginally resolved stellar groups and aggregates.

    MUSE will be an amazing tool for the study of large-scale jets in young stellar objects. Its combination of broad line coverage, kinematics, and high angular resolution over a wide field of view will represent an outstanding gain in quality and information content over jet studies with other optical instruments. Major breakthroughs will result on a number of pressing questions such as the measurements of the magnetic field strength and shock conditions in the jet, the jet total density and the ratio of ejected to accreted mass, the origin of jet knots and non-axisymmetric wiggling structures, the low-velocity halo and its relation to molecular jets and the physics of jet working surfaces and interstellar shocks.

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    HST optical image of a jet from a young star (Herbig Haro HH47)

    MUSE’s capability to perform massive spectroscopy in crowded environment is unique and complementarity with GAIA which will not be able to study the dense regions in our galaxy such as the bulge or the inner disk. This will allow e.g. the detailed study and understanding of the star formation and the chemical history of the Galaxy and of its nearby companions, such as the Magellanic Clouds. Another example is the dynamical mapping of the inner regions of Globular Clusters across the full age range which would determine kinematic distribution functions, binarity, mass length scales, the incidence of extreme objects, the age-dependance of core mass-transfer hard binaries, and so on. This will provide a unique view of the dynamical evolution of these dense systems.

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    Examples of southern nearby disk galaxies, suitable for a census of massive stars: NGC45, NGC55, NGC247, NGC253, NGC300, NGC7793 (left-right, top-bottom)

    MUSE will provide a unique opportunity to pursue extragalactic stellar astrophysics in galaxies up to several Mpc distant, pioneering a research field and a technique that will be extended even further with the advent of Extremely Large Telescopes. Observing large fields (typically 5x5 arcmin2) of nearby southern disk galaxies, MUSE will discover a large number of massive stars. Such data sets will allow the unraveling of the evolution of these stars, by means of a careful study of the properties, interrelations and relative numbers of different classes of massive stars and comparing these with new stellar evolution calculations. In a similar way, the capabilities of MUSE are ideally suited to the study of extragalactic planetary nebulae, from nearby galaxies up to Virgo. MUSE will contribute to the understanding of a number of areas which are the subject of much current research through the observations of marginally resolved stellar groups and aggregates.

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    Stars and Resolved Stellar Population Science Case
    Complete description of the Stars and Resolved Stellar Population Science Case